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Class Notes and Others

विद्युतीय कारोबार ऐन २०६३ अनुसार नियन्त्रकको काम गर्न निवेदन दिँदा पेश गर्नु पर्ने कागजातहरु के के हुन

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विद्युतीय कारोबार ऐन २०६३ अनुसार नियन्त्रकको काम

गर्न निवेदन दिँदा पेश गर्नु पर्ने कागजातहरु के के हुन?


प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने निकायको काम गर्न आवश्यक योग्यता पुगेको व्यक्तिले तोकिएको ढाँचामा लाग्ने दस्तुर संलग्न गरी नियन्त्रक समक्ष निवेदन दिनु पर्छ। विद्युतीय कारोबार ऐन २०६३ को दफा १६ को उपदफा २ मा त्यसरी निवेदन दिँदा संलग्न गर्नु पर्ने कागजातहरुका विषयमा उल्लेख गरिएको छ। उक्त उपदफा अनुसार आवश्यक कागजातहरु यस प्रकार छन्


क. प्रमाणीकरण सम्बन्धी विवरण

ख. निवेदकको पहिचान तथा सनाखतको पुष्टी हुने किसिमका कागजातहरु

ग. वित्तीय श्रोत, जनशक्ति तथा आवश्यक अन्य सुविधा खुल्ने कागजातहरु

घ. तोकिए बमोजिमका अन्य कागजातहरु


नियन्त्रकले आवश्यक ठानेमा प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने नियकायको रुपमा निवदेकले काम गर्न सक्ने वा नसक्ने सम्बन्धमा निवेदकको उपयुक्तता जाँच गर्न निवेदक सँग आवश्यक थप कागजात तथा विवरण माग गृन सक्छ। यसरी आवश्यक थप कागजात तथा विवरण माग गरिएमा निवेदकले त्यस्ता कागजात तथा विवरण दाखिला नगरेसम्म निजको निवेदन उपर कुनै कारवाही गरिने छैन ।



विद्युतीय कारोबार ऐन २०६३ अनुसार नियन्त्रकको काम कर्तव्य र अधिकार

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विद्युतिय कारोबार ऐन २०६३ अनुसार नियन्त्रकको

काम कर्तव्य र अधिकारहरु के के हुन?


विद्युतिय कारोबार ऐन २०६३ को परिच्छेद ४ मा नियन्त्रक तथा प्रमाणिकरण गर्ने निकाय सम्बन्धी व्यवस्था गरिएको छ। यस ऐनको दफा १४ मा नियन्त्रकको काम, कर्तव्य र अधिकार सम्बन्धि व्यवस्था उल्लेख छ।  उक्त व्यवस्था बमोजिम नियन्त्रकको काम कर्तव्य तथा अधिकारहरु निम्नानुसार छन्


क) प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने निकायलाई इजाजतपत्र प्रदान गर्ने

ख) प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने निकायको काम कारबाहीको सुपरिवेक्षण र रेखदेख गर्ने

ग) प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने नियकाले डिजिटल हस्ताक्षर सम्पुष्टि गर्ने सम्बन्धमा कायम गर्नु पर्ने स्तरहरु निर्धारण गर्ने

घ) प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने निकायले आफ्नो कारोवार सञ्चालन गर्दा पालन गर्नु पर्ने शर्त निर्धारण गर्ने

ङ) प्रमाणपत्रको ढाँचा र त्यसभित्र समाविष्ट हुनु पर्ने विषय वस्तुको निर्धारण गर्ने

च) प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने निकायले ग्राहक सँग व्यवहार गर्दा अपनाउनु पर्ने प्रक्रिया निर्धारण गर्ने

छ) प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने नियकाले यस ऐन बमोजिम प्रकट गरेका सूचनाहरुको अभिलेख खडा गरी सार्वजनिक रुपमा पहुँच योग्य हुने गरी कम्प्युटर तथ्याँक आधारको व्यवस्था गर्ने र सो तथ्याँक आधारलाई अद्यावधिक गर्ने

ज) तोकिए बमोजिमको अन्य काम गर्ने।



Word 2007 Mail Merge with an Example

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EnvelopeThe most useful feature in Microsoft Word is Mail Merge and I'm afraid this is the least used feature!

Mail Merge is a process of combining source document with data source to create merged document such as letters, emails, quotations, invoices, contracts, surveys, reports and audits.


Mail merge is a very useful tool that helps you create multiple copies of a document like letters, invitations, circulations etc. each with small difference in them. In spite of its immense utility, very few people are really using it. Most people do tedious task of copy and paste and perform required modification not because Mail Merge is inefficient but because they tend to take it as complex process. Poor them! I wonder why, even training institutes exclude mail merge from their course when teaching Office Package (MS Word, MS Excel, MS Access, and MS PowerPoint). How could anybody afford to skip such practically useful topic? Truly speaking, Mail Merge as much easier as it is useful.
The next thing surprises me is a whole lot of mail merge software and applications flourished over the net. There is not lack of mail merge template, nor fax mail merge programs. Some are free downloadable and some are paid. They might be useful for advanced and complex type of merging and mass mailing but consider if you really need them? Is Mail Merge tool provided in MS Word not sufficient for what you intend - forced you to look for other applications?

When to use Mail Merge?

There might be numerous situations when mail merge is suitable solution to accomplish your tasks quickly and efficiently. Some examples are:
* You needed to print envelopes to mail letters. Recipients name, street address, city, state, country, zip code, contact etc might have stored on Excel spreadsheet, or Access database, or even in Word document itself.
* You needed to send same message but personalized emails to many people.
* You needed to fax a memo to all of your branches and officials.
* Print Students' Report Cards or Marks Cards of an examination.
* Send notice to different concerned people
* And many many

Components of Mail Merge

The process involves three major components:

Main Document

This is the format and structure of document with text and graphics where we insert the placeholders for data to fall in. The merged document will be created exactly like main document with different content coming form data source document. Main documents can be Letters, E-Mail Message, Envelopes, Labels, Directory or any custom document structure.

Data Source

This is the storehouse of data. Most often this file is already created for different other purposes. Your company database or spreadsheet or even a list created can be used as data source if it contains the data items you require to fill up in your main document. When there is no file, required for mail merge, don't worry! The option to create a new data source always exists. The most useful data source could be your Outlook Contacts if you need to merge and send to email addresses.

Merge Process

This is a process that picks data items from Data Source and fills the place holders in Main Document to create a new merged document or send in mail or even send in fax. You can send merge to the printer directly, send to fax or to outlook.

An example and procedure

After talking all this, it would be easier to understand through an example. I'm going to show you how you can create envelopes using mail merge in Word 2007.

Step 1. Create Main Document
Step 2. Create or identify data source
Step 3. Merge
Take a new document, then:
  1. Click the Mailings ribbon
  2. From 'Start Mail Merge' button choose 'Envelopes'. Choose the required 'Envelope size' and specify the preferred font for 'Delivery address' and 'Return address'. For my purpose I selected Size 10 Envelop size and default fonts

  1. Click OK to accept and close the dialog box.
  2. Now, type your return address. This won't be changing for each recipient so you can simply type on envelop.
  3. Since we don't have recipients yet, let us choose the data source. Click on Select Recipients button.
  4. If you have the data source already created you can choose 'Use Existing List…'. For current purpose, I'm creating a new list. So choose 'Type a New List' menu. MS Word will open 'New Address List' dialog box. This will be suitable for most cases. If not, you can customize columns. Look at the button at the bottom.
  5. Type the list of your recipients in this box. When finished click OK and save the data source file giving it a name.
  6. After you specify recipients, now you can return to your main document and insert the place holders.
  7. Place the insertion line in Recipients text box and Click on 'Insert Merge Field' button and Choose Title.
  8. Similarly, inset other fields as shown in figure.

  1. Done. You are ready to merge now. If you wish how the data will be filled in, click on Preview Results button on Mailings ribbon.
  2. To merge, click on Finish and Merge button and choose suitable menu. You should get something like below:


Relative, Absolute and Mixed Cell Reference Explained - Types of Cell Address | Microsoft Excel

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Microsoft Excel Logo

Types of Cell Addresses in Excel

1. Relative Cell Address

2. Absolute Cell Address

3. Mixed Cell Address


There are two major types of references used in Microsoft Excel which is an Absolute Reference and a Relative Reference. On a day-to-day basis, the relative and absolute reference doesn't really affect the operations of your spreadsheet. Where it does become a noticeable issue is when you start copying formulas from one cell to another.

Lets investigate the difference between the two …

A Relative Reference is one that when copied from one position to another will adjust the formula cell address to suit the position it is in. For example if you have a formula in cell address C4 that was =B4*C1 and then copied the formula into say C5 what you will notice is that the cell addresses of the formula will change to =B5 * C2. The reason this has occurred is that the cell addresses are in fact relative addresses. That is the cell address is relative to its current position.

To change a cell address from being relative to being absolute we simply add dollars signs to the cell address in this way - $C$5. What this address is now saying to us is that we must absolutely refer to column C and absolutely refer to Row 5. This means that if we apply the dollar symbols to our previous formula in cell C4 which is =$B$4 * $C$4 and then copy our formula to cell address C5 you will notice this time round that the cell addresses didn't change. The reason is that by adding the $ symbols to the cell address we are telling the formula that regardless of where you place the formula you must absolutely refer to Column B and Row four thus we have $B$4.

There are many reasons why you may use Relative References over Absolute references and vice versa. One of the most common one for using absolute references is when you have a specific value you want to refer to in a formula. For example, lets say you are building a mortgage calculator and you need to refer to an Interest Rate. To ensure you are always referring to the right cell that has the interest rate value you may set an absolute value.

In Microsoft Excel there is also a reference called a mixed reference. Essentially what this means is that only either the Column or the Row has the dollar symbol, for example $C3. What this is telling us is that in the formula you must absolutely refer to column C but the value in the row is relative to the position of the formula.

There are a number of ways that you can enter Relative and Absolute values into a formula. One technique is that you can simply type the $ symbols next to the Row or the Column. However there is an alternative. Once you have typed in the Cell address like C4 you can move back into the cell address and then use the F4 key to toggle the cell reference from Relative to Absolute to a Mixed References.

Absolute and relative references are extremely important in Microsoft Excel and they ensure that the formulas you are creating actually refer to the correct cells. Remember one simple rule, if the cell addresses have a $ symbol next to it, it means you must absolutely refer to either the column or the row.

Microsoft Excel Problems and Solutions

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Source: Contexture

The article below lists some of the most frequently faced problems of Microsoft Excel and provides reasonable solutions for them. Its in a questions and answers format.

Why do the column headers show numbers instead of letters? How do I change my column headings so they are back to letters instead of numbers?

  1. Choose Tools > Options and select the General tab.
  2. Remove the check mark from 'R1C1 reference style'

How can I change the color of the sheet tabs? 

In Excel 2002, and later versions, you can colour the sheet tabs. Right-click on a sheet tab, and choose Tab Color...

Note: When the sheet is selected, the colour will show in a thin strip at the bottom of the sheet tab. The full tab is coloured for non-selected sheets.




Why do my scrollbars go to row 500 -- my data ends in cell E50?

Excel may be remembering some data that was in row 500, but has been deleted. To go to the cell which is currently the "Last Cell" in the worksheet, hold the Ctrl key, and press the End key. If the Last Cell (cell J500 in this example) is outside the range of cells that is actually being used, you can reset the used range, so the scroll bar works correctly.

Note: If any cells contain references to the deleted cells, those references will be replaced with a #REF! error. If you have cells that are formatted, but outside the range that contains data, the formatting will be lost.

To manually reset the used range:

    1. Select the last cell that contains data in the worksheet
    2. To delete any unused rows:
      • Move down one row from the last cell with data.
      • Hold the Ctrl and Shift keys, and press the Down Arrow key
      • Right-click in the selected cells, and, from the shortcut menu, choose Delete
      • Select Entire Row, click OK.
    3. To delete any unused columns:
      • Move right one column from the last cell with data.
      • Hold the Ctrl and Shift keys, and press the Right Arrow key
      • Right-click in the selected cells, and, from the shortcut menu, choose Delete
      • Select Entire Column, click OK.
    4. Save the file. Note: In older versions of Excel, you may have to Save, then close and re-open the file before the used range is reset







How can I protect formulas from being deleted or changed? 

  1. Select all cells that users ARE allowed to change.
  2. Choose Format > Cells > Protection
  3. Remove the check mark from Locked.
  4. Then, to protect the worksheet, choose Tools > Protection > Protect worksheet.

I've lost my password! 

Well, there are passwords and there are passwords. One is to open the file, one other is to unprotect the spreadsheet, still another is to unprotect the workbook and yet another one is to unprotect the macro code. File and VBA passwords cannot be cracked by a "normal macro", workbook and worksheet passwords are fairly easy. A search for "excel password" at will find both commercial and free solutions of varying quality and brutality.

How can I protect an Excel file (and associated code) from unauthorized copying and/or create time limited functionality? 

There is no foolproof method for this, and most solutions limit themselves to require macros enabled on opening. This said, creating your own system is a fun challenge allowing lots of "evil creativity".




When I type a number, example 44, it becomes 0.44 even if I format the cell without decimals.

Goto Tools>Options/Edit and uncheck the Fixed decimals checkbox.

When I clear a large range , it takes forever. How can I make it faster?

If you have Google Desktop Search installed, turn it off in Excel.

How can I prevent hyperlinks from appearing when I type an email address?

To turn that option off in Excel 2002 and later versions:

  • Choose Tools | AutoCorrect Options
  • Select the AutoFormat as you type tab
  • Remove the check mark from Internet and network paths with hyperlinks
  • Click OK

To undo the hyperlink creation in all versions:

  • Type the email address and press Enter
  • Immediately, press Ctrl+Z. This is a shortcut for Undo, and will convert the hyperlink back to text.

To change a group of cells that contain hyperlinks, you can use the Convert with Paste Special technique.

The code below, when run on a selection, will also delete the hyperlinks.

Sub delHyperlinks()
Dim myCell As Range
For Each myCell In Selection
Next myCell
End Sub

When I import information from my merchant account the field which holds the 16 digit credit card information does not display it properly. 

Excel only maintains 15 significant digits for numbers and cannot be used for credit cards which require 16 digits. If you don't need to do math on them, input long numbers into a range that you've formatted as text (Format>Cells, Number tab).

To prevent both of the above issues (hyperlinks and 16-digit numbers) -- as well as entries that are automatically converted to dates (e.g. 3/4) -- type a single quote ( ' ) before the entry. Excel will treat the cell as pure text and change nothing.

I just began to design an intricate spreadsheet and after over an hour got an error message in Excel - which then closed automatically. Unfortunately, I did not save my file. Excel did not automatically recover the file. Is there anything I can do to get it back? 

No. There should be an Autosave add-in in Tools > Add-Ins menu that you now might consider start using. (But then again, you may not want to overwrite an existing file with every little test you do in it, so be careful).

Jan Karel Pieterse has an add-in downloadable from

See also David McRitchie's for more on backup and recovery.

Finally, Excel XP has great backup and recovery tools, so upgrading is a good future solution to those problems.

Source: Contextures

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