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Fundamentals of Computer - Historical Milestones in the Development of Computers [Notes]

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Early Ages 

SN
Historical Milestone
Approximate Date
Resource for further study
1.       
Carving notches on bones for counting purpose began around
30,000 to 20,000 BC
 
 
2.       
Place value number systems started from
8500 BC
 
3.       
Invention of Abacus, first known counting device
1000 to 500 BC
 
4.       
Use of Zero and negative numbers started around
300 – 600 BC
 
  

Distant Past Inventions

SN
Historical Milestone
Approximate Date
Resource for further study
5.       
The first self striking water clock
1434 AD
 
 
6.       
Leonardo da Vinci’s mechanical calculator
1500
 
 

Seventh (17th) Century Developments

SN
Historical Milestone
Approximate Date
Resource for further study
7.       
John Napier’s Bones
(A set of 11 rods carved with numbers used for simplifying multiplication purpose)
1614
 
 
8.       
William Oughtred’s Slide Rule
(A set of two or more rulers that slide upon other used for division and multiplications aids)
1621
 
9.       
Wilhemm Schickard’s mechanical calculator
1625
 
10. 
Blaise Pascal’s Arithmetic Machine – La Pascaline
(A mechanical way of adding numbers by dialing wheels)
1640
 
11. 
Gottfried von Leibniz’s Stepped Reckoner
(Improvement on Pascaline that could perform multiplications and divisions too)
1670
 
 

Eighteenth (18th ) Century Development

SN
Historical Milestone
Approximate Date
Resource for further study
12. 
The first English Typewriter patent
1714
 
 
13. 
Colmar’s Arithmometer
1785
 
 

Nineteenth (19th ) Century Development

SN
Historical Milestone
Approximate Date
Resource for further study
14. 
Joseph Jacquard’s Punched Cards
(Used to automate weaving patterns in looms)
1800
 
 
15. 
Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine
1822
 
16. 
The first American Typewriter patent
1829
 
17. 
Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine
1830
 
18. 
George and Edward Scheutz’s Difference Engine
1834
 
19. 
Samuel Morse’s Invention of electric telegraph
1837
 
20. 
The first programmer Augusta suggested Binary Storage
1840
 
21. 
George Bool’s Boolean Algebra
1847
 
22. 
Sir Charles Wheatstone’s use of paper tape to store data
1857
 
23. 
The first commercial typewriter
1867
 
24. 
George Bernard Grant’s Difference Engine
1867
 
25. 
Charles Pierce links Boolean Algebra to circuits based on switches
1886
 
26. 
Dr. Herman Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine
1890
 
 

Twentieth  (20th ) Century Development

SN
Historical Milestone
Approximate Date
Resource for further study
27. 
John Ambrose Fleming’s invention of Vacuum Tubes
1900
 
 
28. 
The first teleprinters
1902
 
29. 
Lee de Forest’s invention of Triode
1906
 
30. 
Patent for semiconductor transistor
1926
 
31. 
The Dvorak keyboard
1936
 
32. 
Alan Turing’s Turing Machine
1937
 
33. 
John Vincent Atanasoft and Clifford Bery’s ABC Computer
(Special purpose electronic digital computer)
1939
 
34. 
Howard’s Kiken’s Harvard Mark I (IBM ASCC)
1939
 
35. 
John von Neumann’s Stored Program Concept
1940
 
36. 
Konr Zuse’s Z1, Z3 and Z4 computers
(All these computers destroyed on world war)
1941
 
37. 
Alan Turing and COLOSSUS developed Vacuum Tube technology
1943
 
38. 
ENIAC
(The first general purpose electronic digital computer)
1943
 
39. 
EDVAC
(The first stored program concept computer)
1944
 
40. 
Aiken built Mark – I
1944
 
41. 
The first computer bug
1944
 
42. 
UNIVAC
(The first commercial computer)
1948
 
43. 
The first assembler – Initial Orders
1949
 
44. 
Wang’s Magnetic Core Memory
1949
 
45. 
Hopper’s UNIVAC-I Compiler
1950
 
46. 
G.W.A. Dummer conceives integrated circuits
1952
 
47. 
FORTRAN was developed
1957
 
48. 
Kibly & Noce developed first IC
1958
 
49. 
COBOL developed
1959
 
50. 
IBM System/360 mainframe computer
1960
 
51. 
BASIC developed by Kemeny & Kurtz
1965
 
52. 
First disk storage by IBM
1966
 
53. 
Keyboard, Mouse and first GUI
1968
 
54. 
First Static and Dynamic RAMs used
1970
 
55. 
Hoff’s first Microprocessor – 4004
1971
 
56. 
8 inch floppy disk appeared
1971
 
57. 
8008 Microprocessor launched
1972
 
58. 
5.25 inch Mini Floppy disk
1972
 
59. 
Hard Disk Devices started
1973
 
60. 
8080, 6800 microprocessors
1974
 
61. 
Father of Micro Computers Roberts developed Altair 8800 microcomputer
1975
 
62. 
Microsoft founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen
1975
 
63. 
Steven Jobs & Wozniak developed Apple I and Apple II microcomputers
1976
 
64. 
Cray developed the Cray-I super computer
1976
 
65. 
8086 microprocessor
1980
 
66. 
First IBP PC with DOS
1981
 
67. 
Microsoft Windows introduced
1985
 
68. 
Intel’s 386 microprocessor
1985
 
69. 
Intel 486 microprocessor
1989
 
70. 
Intel’s Pentium (586)
1992
 
71. 
Intel’s Pentium Pro (x86)
1996
 
72. 
Pentium II
1997
 
73. 
Pentium III
1999
 
74. 
Pentium IV
2000
 
75. 
Core 2 Duo
 
 
76. 
Duo core processor
 
 
 
 

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